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Disease Surveillence

Disease Surveillence

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Diseases prevalent among sheep and goat flocks in Kashmir

                         With the introduction of exotic blood in the flocks of Kashmir the sucessptablibity  of animals to the disease also increased. The local non descript animals were resistant to most of the disease and the improved cross bred verities are prone to many fatal disease. The important disease affecting sheep and goat flocks in Kashmir are as:-

1.     Sheep Pox:-

              It is an acute viral disease affecting sheep of all age groups. It is a disease which is generalized and shows skin lesions typical of pox . The non wooled areas show greatest number of eruptions . The disease used to sweep the flocks of sheep population in the past especially in mid eighties entire flocks have been swept by the malignant form of the disease and the department imported sheep pox vaccine for USSR and controlled it and the disease was eradicated from the province , but latter in nineties  the disease again emerged due to indiscriminate and unchecked transportation  of livestock from outside. The disease caused  losses in the flocks but is now under control due to intervention of vaccination programmes. out breaks of disease have been reported from Anantnag, Budgam, Baramulla, Bandipora, Shangas, Chadoora, Khag, Magam, Kangan and Ganderbal.

                   Disease investigation laboratory is striving for controlling the disease for which production of killed sheep pox vaccine has shown a steady increase from merely 5000 doses in to 4 lac doses in 2011-12. The locally produced vaccine is highly effective against the disease even in the height of outbreaks.

 

          Reduction in Sheep Pox cases

                                        

 Year

Animals affected

Deaths

2001-12

15780

2237

2002-03

4130

283

2003-04

1054

65

2004-05

2342

61

2005-06

3500

152

2006-07

3409

178

2007-08

128

03

2008-09

9059

338

2009-10

3611

88

2010-11

853

13

2011-12

399

02

2012-13, till date

10

04

 

2.   Clostridial  disease:-

 

            Clostridial diseases are amongst the most important diseases of sheep and goat in Kashmir causing heavy losses .These includes lamb dysentery Braxy enterotoxaemia pulpy kidney, Black disease etc and  occur throughout the year in all parts of the valley. The diseases are  controlled by vaccination (MCC & ENT) provided by the department twice at least in an year. The department is planning to manufacture the vaccine in the laboratory in future.

 

3.     Brucellosis:-

            Brucellosis is amongst the most economically important diseases affecting livestock, besides having zoonotic significance. The Disease investigation laboratory  is continuously screening the flocks for the disease by Rapid plate Agglutination Test & ELISA. The disease causing reproductive losses & having zoonotic importance requires special attention.

4.     Footrot:-

           Footrot is a contagious bacterial disease affecting  hooves of animals . Damp condition and injury to foot are the predisposing factors. The disease is prevalent mostly in marshy areas and also has prevalence at highland pastures. Farmers are educated regarding improving hygiene and foot care of animals to avoid the outbreaks. Division of microbiology SKUAST-K  is in a process of production of a vaccine against the disease. The disease causes heavy economical losses on account of loss of production and deaths also.

 

5.     Fascioliasis:-

           Sheep & goat being  more prone to fasciolliasis need special attention for its prevention. Acute fascioliasis causes havoc in the endemic areas, mostly low lying marshy areas, where along with the Black disease ( Acute fascioliasis and  Black disease are closely associated) deaths and mortality occurs. The disease  has been reported during last few years in the area of Panzinara, Mujgund,Maloora, Palpora, Sangam of Srinagar district & area s of Hajin Sumbal, Pulwama area, during the months of November & December. Frequent anthelminthic  dosing with closental and triclabandazole & M.C.C vaccine in a planned manner by the department has lessened the incidence of the disease.

 

6.   PPR:-

           It is an infectious viral disease characterized by high fever, anorexia rapid respiration rate & shooting diarrhea. The disease has been reported since last 4 years during summer and has a morbidly rate of 50-90% and the mortality being about 50%. The department procures vaccine against the disease and is used in endemic areas, mostly Budgam.

7.     Blue Tongue:-

           It is a viral disease transmitted by vector with signs of lameness high fever and stomatitis  with potential hazard  of abortion among pregnant flocks. The disease has been reported from areas of Baramulla & Khansaheb Budgam.

 

8.     Foot and mouth disease :-

           Foot & mouth disease is a viral contagion disease characterized by high temperature , lesions in  mouth  and foot. Though it is silent in Sheep and does not manifest, it carries infection to the cattle. The disease was reported this year from Pattan and some other areas.

 

9.     Contagious ecthyma:-

            It is a viral disease, pseudopox, characterized   by formation of scabs   on lip commissures and gums which lead to starvation  in unattended  lambs and consequent death, sporadic cases are reported from various areas of the valley.

 

     10. Contagion caprine  pleuro pneumonia .

 

           The disease occurs in goats & is caused by mycoplasma organism with respiratory symptoms. sporadic cases of the disease have been reported.

 

11.Pasteurellosis :-

              Pasteurellosis is a bacterial disease predisposed by stress like,  shearing  long journeys mall nutrition etc.The disease has been reported sporadically.

 

 

 

Seasonal prevalence of different diseases affecting Sheep and Goats in Kashmir Province

S.No.

Name of Diseases

Disease Occurrence

Areas affected

1.       

Sheep Pox

Almost throughout the year

Throughout endemic including in Leh and Kargil

2.       

PPR

Seasonal.

Nov/Dec in Kargil

Summer to winter

Kargil, Leh, Budgam, Pulwama, Baramulla, Kulgam

3.       

Suspected FMD

Spring to Autumn

Throughout. Off late it was reported from

Budgam, Baramulla, Ganderbal, Kulgam

4.       

Blue tongue

Seasonal

August to Nov.

Throughout valley

Kupwara, Baramulla, Srinagar

5.       

Goat pox

Throughout

Spring/Autumn

Leh/ Kargil & few hilly areas of the other districts.

6.       

Clostridial diseases

Autumn to Winter Season

Throughout valley

 

7.       

Contagious Ecthyma

Throughout

Throughout valley

 

8.       

Foot Rot

Almost  throughout the year

Throughout valley

 

9.       

CCPP

Any season

Throughout  valley and Leh Division

10.   

Brucellosis

Throughout year

Throughout  valley

11.   

Anthrax

Sporadical occurrence

Throughout  valley

12.   

Fascioliasis

Autumn and Spring season mostly

Throughout valley particularly in lowlying, waterlogged and marshy areas

          13.       

Coccidiosis

Throughout Year

Throughout Valley

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List is not exhaustive as all cases are not reported or investigations are inconclusive.