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Goat Production


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Goat Development    

Rearing of goats is a traditional vocation in Jammu & Kashmir. The tribals  viz Bakerwals, Gaddies and Changpas have developed perfect professionalism in Sheep & Goat rearing. Being the source of their livelihood, they have become the saviors of goats over the centuries.             

             Goat is mainly reared for meat, milk & fiber (Pashmina and Mohair), hide and skin. Besides hide and  hair, intestine serve as basic raw materials for many processing industries, of which leather is the most important and accounts for sizeable employment and  even export earnings.

                Goat commonly known as “the poor man’s cow” plays a vital role in improving the socio-economic conditions of poor rural masses, who depend for their sustenance on this animal. This fulfills the requirement of those farmers with marginal grazing lands which due to some reason can not sustain large animals, through out the milk production cycle. Efforts are being under taken by the Sheep Husbandry department for development of muttonous varieties of goats by introducing improved breeds among the existing goat population of the Sate ,as the native goats exhibit poor growth rate and produce small quantity of milk due to poor genetic potential.

Population dynamics of pure and non descript  goat breeds of the State:

   

S.No

Year

Goat population

(  Number in lacs.)

1

1951

4.9

2

1972

5.7

3

1977

6.9

4

1982

10.00

5

1988

13.90

6

1997

17.20

7

2003

20.55

8

2007

22.60

Estimated Goat population for the year 2011-12 is 23.04 lacs


LOCAL KASHMIRI GOAT
:

                        Non descriptive Goat, short statured, coloured and weighing 30-40 kgs at adult stage. It is being found in hilly tracts of Shopian, Kulgam, Tral, Budgam, Kupwara, etc.

 

 PASHMINA/ CHANGRA GOAT

 

                       A sizable portion of goat population of the state viz 3.20 lacs is found in the Leh District of the Ladakh region and major chunk of this goat population comprises of Pashmina / Changra. These goats are reared by Changpas, a nomadic race in Changthang sub division of Leh, Ladakh situated at an altitude of 12000 to 18000 ft. above mean sea level. The area is sandy and mountainous & the atmospheric temperature during winter goes down to (-)40 degree Celsius. The goat is a hardy, sturdy, small dainty animal with quick moments, capable of surviving in difficult conditions. Animal has short neck and medium sized ears. Horns are narrow towards tips. The entire body is covered with coarse hair with long fibers on the bridges and shoulders with a fine under coat Pashmina.

          Pashmina fiber has a unique position among animal fibers for its fineness, warmth, durability, lightness, softness & ability to absorb dyes and moisture as compared to mohair and wool because of its freeness from msedulation. The fiber diameter of Pashmina ranges from 12 to 14 Microns.

 

 Angora Goat

               Angora goats are reared in Ladakh division and are known for production of Mohair a fine quality fiber which is used by local people in Ladakh for making Woolen garments after mixing it with sheep wool.

 

 Alpine Goat                                                                                                            

It is an important milch breed with origin in France. The milk yield on an average is 1.5-2.00 kilograms per day. An adult male weighs about 75 kilograms and female about 62 kilograms. The breed has been introduced in the valley and Kargil and about 40% cross breeding has been achieved so far.

                                                 

 Future policies for improvement of Goats in the State.

            Keeping in view the present scenario of mutton development various mutinous breeds of goat (besides sheep breeds) are being introduced in the state to bridge the gap between the demand and supply of meat, in addition to increase the milk production.

 

1-Toggenburg, a dual purpose breed has been introduced in Jammu division and is still under technical observation for its adaptability vis-à-vis traits of economical importance.

 

2-  Boer Goat:-It is indigenous to South Africa and is dual purpose and claimed to bear all the attributes which a high yielding improved breed of goat should posses. It is also having adaptability to a wide range of climatic conditions. It is said to be very fertile and the kidding % is claimed to be 180. In addition it produces on an average 2 kilograms of milk per day containing 7-9% fat, 19 % SNUFF. The Boer goat has a birth weight of 2.4 Kilograms weaning weight 35 Kilograms and 115 kilograms adult weight in males. The breed is likely to boost meat production in the valley.

            This year the State department has purchased three Boer bucks recently from National Agriculture Research Institute Maharashtra for breeding and up gradation of local stock for pilot study.

 

3-Crossbreeding programmes.

Crossbreeding of local valley flocks with Alpine is being taken up on a large scale to increase Milk production. Similarly Beetal breed of goat is also being introduced in the warmer belts of the valley viz Uri and Karnah for promotion of their development and increase in milk production. A good number of does of this breed have already been purchased from Gurdaspur area of Punjab and are presently maintained at Goat farm Arindardpora, district Bandipora for  study and  further distribution and propagation in the field.